PADI Instructor Examinations for April, 2018

04 Apr | Mabul, Malaysia

04 Apr | Whitianga, New Zealand

05 Apr | Koh Lanta, Thailand

06 Apr | Komodo, Indonesia

06 Apr | Neil Island, Andamans, India

07 Apr | Bali, Indonesia

07 Apr | Cairns, Australia

09 Apr | Hikkaduwa, Sri Lanka

10 Apr | Gili Islands, Indonesia

14 Apr | Sanya, China

14 Apr | Semporna, Malaysia

15 Apr | Moalboal, Philippines

17 Apr | Malapascua, Philippines

21 Apr | Bohol, Philippines

21 Apr | Jakarta, Indonesia

21 Apr | Phuket, Thailand

21 Apr | Shenzhen, China

21 Apr | Sydney, Australia

21 Apr | Tioman Island, Malaysia

24 Apr | Koh Tao, Thailand

24 Apr | Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

26 Apr | Dunedin, New Zealand

28 Apr | Jeju Island, South Korea

28 Apr | Melbourne, Australia

How Diving Affects Your Health and Circulatory System

By the Divers Alert Network Medical Team

Scuba diving exposes you to many effects, including immersion, cold, hyperbaric gases, elevated breathing pressure, exercise and stress, as well as a post dive risk of gas bubbles circulating in your blood. Your heart’s capacity to support an elevated blood output decreases with age and with disease. Having a healthy heart is of the utmost importance to your safety while scuba diving as well as to your ability to exercise generally and your life span.

In this article, we explore how the various aspects of diving affect your heart and cardiovascular system.

Effects of Immersion

Immersion in water near the temperature of the human body exposes your body to a pressure gradient, which shifts blood from the vessels in your legs to those in your chest cavity. This increases the volume of blood within your chest by up to 24 ounces (700 milliliters).

Your heart thus takes in an additional 6 to 8 ounces (180 to 240 milliliters) of blood, resulting in an enlargement of all four chambers, an increase in pressure in your right atrium, a more than 30-percent increase in cardiac output and a slight increase in your overall blood pressure.

Baroreceptors (sensors that perceive a change in blood pressure) within your body’s major vessels react to all these changes by decreasing the activity of your sympathetic nervous system, which governs what’s popularly called the “fight-or-flight” response. As a result, your heart rate declines and the concentration in your plasma of norepinephrine, a hormone of the sympathetic nervous system drops; in response to the drop in norepinephrine, your kidneys excrete more sodium, and your urine production increases.

Effects of Cold

Water has high thermal conductivity — that is, your body loses more heat when you’re immersed in water than when you’re in dry air. You’ll feel more comfortable at a given air temperature than when you’re immersed in water of the same temperature. And when your body loses heat, that intensifies the narrowing of your peripheral blood vessels (a condition known as “peripheral vasoconstriction”). This in turn sends more blood to your heart, which increases the filling pressure on the right side of your heart and makes it pump more blood. Constriction of the body’s small arteries also increases the resistance to blood flowing through the periphery of your body, which raises your blood pressure, meaning your heart has to exert itself more to maintain an adequate flow of blood throughout your body.

Effects of Pressure

Breathing air under increased pressure, as you do when scuba diving, also affects your heart and circulatory system. Increased levels of oxygen cause vasoconstriction, increase your blood pressure and reduce your heart rate and heart output. And increased levels of carbon dioxide — which may accumulate in the body when you exercise during a dive, due to reduced pulmonary ventilation caused by dense gases — can increase the flow of blood through your brain, which can speed up oxygen toxicity if you’re breathing a hyperoxic gas mix (one with an elevated level of oxygen).

Effects of Exercise

Diving can be very physically demanding, but recreational divers have the option of choosing diving conditions and activities that typically do not require a lot of exertion. Nevertheless, any dive places some metabolic energy demands on your body. For example, slow, leisurely swimming on the surface represents a moderate-intensity activity, while swimming with fins on the surface requires up to 40 percent less energy than barefoot swimming. But the addition of scuba equipment increases drag on the swimmer and thus the energy cost of swimming. A 1996 paper in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise showed that wearing just one scuba tank may increase a diver’s energy consumption by 25 percent over regular surface swimming at the same speed and that using a drysuit may result in another 25 percent increase in energy consumption.

Most dives at neutral buoyancy and with no current require only short intervals of intermittent swimming at a slow pace and thus represent low- to moderate-intensity exercise. Exercise intensity is measured by a value known as metabolic equivalent (MET), with 1 MET representing the amount of energy consumed when at rest. It is suggested that divers be able to sustain exercise at 6 METs for a period of 20 to 30 minutes. Since people can sustain only about 50 percent of their peak exercise capacity for a protracted period, it is recommended that divers be able to pass an exercise stress test at 12 METs.

Effects of Stress

Your autonomic nervous system (ANS) — the largely involuntary system that regulates internal functions such as your heart rate, respiratory rate and digestion — is affected by diving, too. Among the components of the ANS are the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems; while the sympathetic system governs your body’s “fight-or-flight” response, the parasympathetic system governs resting functions and helps your body conserve energy. In healthy individuals, diving generally increases parasympathetic effects, preserving the heart rate and a measure known as heart rate variability. A dive that is perceived as stressful, however, pushes the ANS in the other direction, meaning sympathetic effects prevail — resulting in an increase in the heart rate, a decline in heart rate variability and an increase in the risk of arrhythmia.

Serious Adverse Effects

Most of the effects that diving has on your heart and circulatory system fall within your body’s capacity to adapt, but sometimes serious adverse reactions can occur. A reaction known as bradyarrhythmia (a very slow and irregular heartbeat) can cause sudden death upon a diver’s entry into the water, especially in individuals with a pre-existing rhythm anomaly. Conversely, tachyarrhythmia (a very rapid and irregular heartbeat) can also cause sudden death, especially in divers with structural or ischemic heart disease. And overexertion or the effects of stress may strain the heart and result in acute manifestations of previously undiagnosed ischemic heart disease.

Breath-hold diving can have particularly serious adverse cardiac effects; these effects occur in quick succession in a response known as the “diving reflex.” Its most significant elements include bradycardia (a slowing of the heart rate); the peripheral vasoconstriction reaction described above; and progressive hypoxia (or lack of an adequate supply of oxygen). To avoid bursting a lung, scuba divers must not hold their breath during ascent.

Last Chance To Register For PBA Bangkok

This is your last chance to register for the upcoming two day PADI Business Academy in Bangkok on the 15th and 16th May, 2018.


This two day Business Academy will focus on topics such as:

  • Elements of a Successful Website
  • Customer Service, Pricing & Sales
  • Email Marketing
  • Social Media & Video
  • PADI’s Digital Space
  • Business Management
  • Market Segmentation & Niche Markets

There will also be dedicated workshop time, where PADI staff will help you work on specific action plans for your dive operation.

The number of attendees is limited to ensure that the PADI Business Academy staff can really focus on you. Register today to make sure you don’t miss out.

Click here to register

For more information, please contact your PADI Regional Manager, or email

You can also view the rest of the upcoming Business Academies for 2018 here.



Join PADI at the Malaysian International Dive Expo 2018

MIDE Screengrab

Come visit the PADI Booth at the Malaysia International Dive Expo (MIDE) from Friday 4th until Sunday 6th May 2018 at the Putra World Trade Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Now in it’s 13th year, MIDE is a must-visit exhibition with a purpose to expand the dive market inside and outside Malaysia. It is an important meeting place and networking hub for dive businesses, consumers and industry players.

MIDE is a one stop shop for those interested and involved in the dive industry to come together for business opportunities, dive education, diving technology, innovation and to broaden the scope and popularity of recreational scuba diving.

MIDE 2018 will showcase more than 2,000 exhibitors over a space of 12,000 sqm, with an average minimum of 10,000 visitors. This is a must attend event for anyone involved or interested in the world of diving.

PADI will be at booth 401-404, in front of the main entrance and we look forward to chatting all things diving with you over the course of the weekend.

A number of PADI Dive Stores will also exhibit at MIDE 2018. See the full list below.

Rainbow Runner 701-706
B & J Diving Centre 421, 422
Diveasia Tioman 207
Quiver Dive Team – Perhentian Island 405-406
Scuba Junkie 714,715
Sealantis Dive Centre 204, 205, 206
Seaventures Dive Rig 107
Udive 803, 806
Viking Scuba 713, 716
Dragonet Diving 621
Tenggol Coral Dive Resort 609, 612
Tenggol Scuba 101 Dive Centre 913, 914
Bigfin Divers 130
Scuba Dobedo Divers 108, 109, 110, 111
Turtle Bay Divers 407, 408, 409
Poni Divers 515
7Seas 415
Bali Crystal Divers 419, 420
Aquamarine Diving-Bali 521
Bunaken Oasis Dive Resort and Spa 221
Bali Aqua 501-506 & 601-606
Ceningan Divers 103, 104
Eco Divers 501-506 & 601-606
ENA Dive Center & Water Sports 501-506 & 601-606
Legend Diving Lembongan 414
Two Fish Divers 501-506 & 601-606
Yos Dive 501-506 & 601-606
World Diving Lembongan 403
 Grand Komodo  519
 Sea Safari Cruises  203
 Bastianos Dive Resort  501-506 & 601-606
Island Divers Next to 118
M/V Scubaspa Ying 912
Atlantis Dive Resorts and Liveaboards 507-512
Devocean Divers Malapascua 507-512
Fun & Sun Dive and Travel 507-512
Salaya Beach Houses 507-512
Scandi Divers 507-512

If you’re planning on exhibiting at MIDE or any other show or expo this year, please get in touch with your PADI Regional Manager to discuss how PADI can support you with these events.

2018 Course Director Preparatory Seminar Conducted in Chinese

Click here to read this article in Chinese.

PADI Asia Pacific and PADI China are pleased to announce a 2018 Course Director Preparatory Seminar that will be held in Chinese. The CD Prep Seminar will take place over 5 days between mid-June to early July in Sanya, China – dates to be announced.

If you or a PADI Instructor you know are considering the next step in your career development path as a PADI Instructor, this seminar is highly recommended for any aspiring Chinese-speaking Course Director wanting to reap maximum benefits from their PADI Course Director Training Course. Many of today’s most successful Chinese Course Directors attended a Course Director Preparatory Seminar and credit it with making the transition from IDC Staff Instructor to Course Director much smoother and simpler.

Argos Diving – Kaka, PADI Course Director

What do you get from Course Director Preparatory Seminar?

PADI Course Directors, Instructor Examiners and CDTC staff members will be present to show you career pathways with a particular focus on becoming a PADI Course Director. The CD Prep Seminar includes:

  • Evaluation workshops
  • IDC and Instructor Continuing Education lesson preparation workshops
  • CDTC application mentoring
  • Rescue and teaching skills development

Participation in the upcoming CD Prep Seminar ensures your readiness for the CDTC and help you graduate with the skills, knowledge and tools necessary to be an effective Course Director. At the CD Prep Seminar you will have the option of taking the Emergency First Response Instructor Course and PADI CDTC pre-requisite exams.

PADI Course Directors are the most elite, highly trained and respected instructor trainers and opinion leaders in diving. Don’t miss the Course Director Prep Seminar and find out what it takes to become a Member of the world’s most highly respected group of diving educators.

CD Prep Seminar pre-requisites;

  • Renewed PADI IDC Staff Instructor or higher.
  • Renewed EFR Instructor

What to bring;

  • Your personal diving equipment, appropriate exposure protection, PADI Instructor Manual, PADI Course Director Manual, PADI Guide to Teaching, Confined Water and Open Water Evaluation slates, Instructor Cue Cards for all course levels.

2018 Course Director Prep Seminar Venue, Location and Cost to be announced soon.

Click here to read this article in Chinese.

For more information, contact your Regional Manager today.


PADI Instructor Examinations for March, 2018

02 Mar | Khao Lak, Thailand

03 Mar | Bali, Indonesia

06 Mar | Gili Islands, Indonesia

09 Mar | Kenting, Taiwan

09 Mar | Lembongan, Indonesia

10 Mar | Koh Chang, Thailand

10 Mar | Sydney, Australia

14 Mar | Pattaya, Thailand

14 Mar | Rarotonga, Cook Islands

15 Mar | El Nido, Philippines

17 Mar | Northland, New Zealand

17 Mar | Phuket, Thailand

18 Mar | Dumaguete, Philippines

18 Mar | Nadi, Fiji

20 Mar | Koh Tao, Thailand

21 Mar | Cebu, Philippines

24 Mar | Boracay, Philippines

27 Mar | Nha Trang, Vietnam

27 Mar | Puerto Galera, Philippines

31 Mar | Goa, India

31 Mar | Santander, Philippines

Your Air, Your Safety: A DAN Asia Pacific Safety and Awareness Campaign

If it wasn’t for scuba cylinders and surface-supply breathing apparatus that give us the possibility to breathe underwater, we wouldn’t be able to explore the underwater world. However, we also need to be vigilant that the gas we breathe is safe as there are various kinds of contaminations that can turn your underwater life support into poison.

After the relatively recent death of a scuba diver, it was found the level of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in his tank was over 450 times the accepted limit. He had filled his tank from a compressor which had, allegedly, not been properly maintained or regularly tested. As a result, the air being supplied was found to be very high in Carbon Monoxide (CO) levels.

This has prompted DAN Asia Pacific (AP) to launch a long-contemplated safety and awareness campaign in an effort to prevent a repeat of this incident.

Many divers only think about air problems from the perspective of running low or managing an out of air emergency, so DAN AP will work to create awareness for this very real issue. Contaminated gas can lead to perception changes and subsequent poor decisions, headaches, dizziness, nausea and, in extreme cases; it may cause unconsciousness and even death.

Unconsciousness from CO poisoning often occurs during or shortly after the ascent and can often lead to drowning unless the diver is rescued very quickly.

Over the coming months, DAN AP will be sharing information that is focussed on prevention and aimed at equipping recreational and professional divers with:

  • An understanding of the dangers of carbon monoxide and other contaminants
  • The ability to identify the symptoms associated with CO poisoning
  • First Aid and Treatment; and
  • Knowledge on how to reduce the risk of poisoning.

The main goal of the campaign is to prevent people from diving with contaminated breathing gas in the first place. We encourage you to share the information so we reach as many divers as possible.

Join the campaign via DAN AP’s Facebook Page, Twitter , Blog , and access resources via the Diving Safety section of the DAN AP website.

Let’s work together to ensure the air we all breathe when diving is safe.
Note: Safety campaigns are financed by DAN membership dues. Thank you to our members for their invaluable support.

Safe Diving.
The DAN Asia-Pacific Team

Originally posted by